At his inauguration, James Madison, a small,
wizened man, appeared old and worn; Washington Irving described him
as "but a withered little apple-John." But whatever his deficiencies
in charm, Madison's buxom wife Dolley compensated for them with her
warmth and gaiety. She was the toast of Washington.
Born in 1751, Madison was brought up in Orange County, Virginia,
and attended Princeton (then called the College of New Jersey). A
student of history and government, well-read in law, he participated
in the framing of the Virginia Constitution in 1776, served in the
Continental Congress, and was a leader in the Virginia Assembly.
When delegates to the Constitutional Convention assembled at
Philadelphia, the 36-year-old Madison took frequent and emphatic part
in the debates.
Madison made a major contribution to the ratification of the
Constitution by writing, with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the
Federalist essays. In later years, when he was referred to as
the "Father of the Constitution," Madison protested that the document
was not "the off-spring of a single brain," but "the work of many
heads and many hands."
In Congress, he helped frame the Bill of Rights and enact the first
revenue legislation. Out of his leadership in opposition to Hamilton's
financial proposals, which he felt would unduly bestow wealth and
power upon northern financiers, came the development of the Republican,
or Jeffersonian, Party.
As President Jefferson's Secretary of State, Madison protested to
warring France and Britain that their seizure of American ships was
contrary to international law. The protests, John Randolph acidly
commented, had the effect of "a shilling pamphlet hurled against eight
hundred ships of war."
Despite the unpopular Embargo Act of 1807, which did not make the
belligerent nations change their ways but did cause a depression in
the United States, Madison was elected President in 1808. Before he
took office the Embargo Act was repealed.
During the first year of Madison's Administration, the United States
prohibited trade with both Britain and France; then in May, 1810,
Congress authorized trade with both, directing the President, if
either would accept America's view of neutral rights, to forbid trade
with the other nation.
Napoleon pretended to comply. Late in 1810, Madison proclaimed
non-intercourse with Great Britain. In Congress a young group
including Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, the "War Hawks," pressed the
President for a more militant policy.
The British impressment of American seamen and the seizure of
cargoes impelled Madison to give in to the pressure. On June 1, 1812,
he asked Congress to declare war.
The young Nation was not prepared to fight; its forces took a severe
trouncing. The British entered Washington and set fire to the White
House and the Capitol.
But a few notable naval and military victories, climaxed by Gen.
Andrew Jackson's triumph at New Orleans, convinced Americans that the
War of 1812 had been gloriously successful. An upsurge of nationalism
resulted. The New England Federalists who had opposed the war--and who
had even talked secession--were so thoroughly repudiated that Federalism
disappeared as a national party.
In retirement at Montpelier, his estate in Orange County, Virginia,
Madison spoke out against the disruptive states' rights influences
that by the 1830's threatened to shatter the Federal Union. In a note
opened after his death in 1836, he stated, "The advice nearest to my
heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be
cherished and perpetuated."